Give Us Some Credit!

Give Us Some Credit!

It’s an exciting time. We’re seeing the next phase of open education happening: progress toward accreditation for open online learning. We thought we’d share the latest news in this welcome trend.

  • Academic Partnerships + MOOC2Degree  Academic Partnerships, representing online learning for some 40 U.S. universities, is launching the MOOC2Degree program. This online degree option is meant to attract students to full degree programs.
  • Coursera + UCB, UCI, Duke & U of Penn  Coursera and four top universities are piloting a system of awarding university credit equivalency for its online courses.
  • Udacity + San Jose State  MOOCs purveyor Udacity partnered with San Jose State University to offer academic credit for a few of its courses.
  • EdX + Stanford  Standford has teamed up with EdX in the effort to open up its online courses to a wider audience. It’s not clear what sort of credit learners receive, but courses are taught by Stanford professors (via interactive video) and include formative and summative assessments.
  • MOOCs + Georgia State  The university is working on granting credit for MOOCs coursework from other institutions.
  • COERLL + LARC  Right here on the language learning home front, COERLL is collaborating with sister language resource center LARC at San Diego State University to develop a badge system for professional development based on an open platform. In the works is a curriculum for COERLL’s Spanish Proficiency Training and Foreign Language Teaching Methods, both open educational resources.

What are you thoughts on awarding credit for open online learning? What should we be aware of as we go forward? For example, credited courses are rarely free — Coursera users  can expect to pay up to $200 for credit, for instance. But what is this compared to university tuitions?

To read more on the topic, see Why I Love and Hate My Spanish MOOC by Fernando Rubio.

Dialogue, Community, and the Creation of OER

Dialogue, Community, and the Creation of OER

Since COERLL began in August 2010, the biggest lesson we’ve learned is that open educational resources (OER) are the products of a community of end users. Just as Wikipedia is the result of its contributors, OERs result from educators and learners who collaborate for the greater good.  Having learned this lesson, we have shifted our emphasis to the creation and curation of a community of open educators.

The Role of Dialogue

Dialogue is the key to developing a community, including the COERLL community. To that end, we have taken multiple steps to foster dialogue with those interested in the benefits of open education for language learning. We have added Facebook sites to several of our OERs such as Français interactif, Deutsch im Blick, and Brazilpod.

We have begun this blog — Open Up to dialogue directly with language teachers and OER developers.

And finally, COERLL just finished co-hosting the annual meeting of the International Association of Dialogue Studies (IADA).  The conference explored the role of dialogue in the creation of communities of practice. According to Etienne Wenger, a learning theorist who popularized the concept, “communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.”

Dialogue Conference Report

During the conference, speakers emphasized the role of dialogue in different types of human interaction, including the professional sphere, e.g.,  doctor-patient interaction, teacher-student interaction,  and reporter-editor interaction.  While the speakers came from different theoretical backgrounds — interaction analysis, conversation analysis, dialogue analysis, and ethnography of speaking–they shared a common goal: to understand the role of communication in communities of practice.

dialogue conference

As part of the conference program, COERLL hosted a panel discussion on the theme of “Curating OER Communities of Practice.”  Orlando Kelm, developer of Brazilpod, spoke about his efforts to curate a community of practice among the users of this popular Portuguese website.  The directors of SPinTX (Spanish in Texas), Jacqueline Toribio and Barbara Bullock, discussed the challenges of getting different communities to talk to each other.  For example, the SpinTX project facilitates a dialogue between Spanish language educators and the developers of the Spanish in Texas video corpus in order to build a pedagogically friendly interface for the videos. 

The bottom line is this: OERs are the product of their community. And dialogue is key to community-building.  So, please, help us build the COERLL community by dialoguing with us. Conference attendees, please feel free to add comments here about the event. Did the experience spark new ideas, new collaborations? Please share your experience. Together, we can build better OERs and a more open world.

“We’re Committed to Openness in Content Creation”

“We’re Committed to Openness in Content Creation”

From the editor: We had the opportunity to interview Scott Rapp, co-founder of the Instreamia language learning platform and the designer and instructor of a new first-year Spanish MOOC (4,762 students enrolled). Check back with Open Up to find out about Scott’s new Language Teaching MOOC for creating blended learning environments.

OU: How did you learn Spanish and what motivated you to create Instreamia?

SR:  My brother, Ryan, and I each spent two years abroad volunteering, Ryan went to Japan, and I went to Honduras. Learning Japanese and Spanish was a necessity.

Years later we were both working for Deloitte–Ryan in Japan and I in DC. We began discussing our strategies for learning languages, which was especially on Ryan’s mind as he had to do everything in Japanese, and he was also constantly being asked how he learned Japanese and recommendations for how they could learn English.

We decided that a well-indexed set of reference tools combined with natural language processing really took a lot of the tediousness out of learning a language. We gradually worked on building a product around RSS feeds and text-based sources when the “big idea” hit me like a ton of bricks: What if we could go beyond text-only sources, and focus our strategy on subtitled videos? Then we could integrate our powerful toolset into a video player! This led to other breakthrough innovations, like the dynamic exercises and adaptive learning with time-series depreciation that Instreamia includes today.

Originally called StudyStream, the Rapp brothers renamed their resource to Instreamia before rolling out their Spanish MOOC in January 2013.

OU: Why did you decide to make your courses open?

SR: Developing the Instreamia software, we wanted it to have a positive impact on the most people possible. We also recognized that many of the ideas for improvements and future developments would come from language learners and teachers, and that has proven true time and again. We still feel strongly that content development efforts by educators (including ourselves) are best made in Open Educational Resources. Our platform can’t work without excellent content, and obtaining and maintaining licensing for hundreds of videos, learning modules, dictionaries, and explanations would greatly undermine the scalability and versatility of our platform.

OU: But you are going to start charging a $99 registration fee? (Learn more.)

SR:  All the investment in Instreamia has been founders’ capital. Before quitting Deloitte, Ryan put away a substantial seed investment that he was able to live on for over a year while he began the development of Instreamia. I still work full-time, and work on Instreamia and the SpanishMOOC in my free time, and invest a portion of my salary to Instreamia.

We knew the time would come for us to change from an entirely free platform to having paid services or premium features. We want to stay true to our decision of making all the content free and open, and we will continue to publish all the materials we or any users create through Creative Commons.

OU: What were the factors behind the decision to charge the fee?

SR: During our initial offering of our Spanish MOOC, we realized the level of effort and commitment to our students (especially hand-grading assignments) could not be handled solely by volunteers. We were faced with a difficult decision: we could shut down the Spanish MOOC offering altogether, degrade the experience by excluding any teacher interaction, or … offer an improved course with paid TAs and graders, and charge a registration fee. We decided to add the fee, so we could offer a much improved learning experience.

OU: What are aspects of your courses that remain open?

SR: Our technology and code-base is not open-source. It’s proprietary and has a patent pending. But we’re committed to openness in content creation. Here’s how teachers, graders, and even advanced learners can contribute to each of our content categories:

  • Native-Content Subtitled Audio/Videos – These are either user-created (under CC), Instreamia-created (under CC), or they are used with permission from YouTube. Teachers can write text, record audio, and translate the transcript through Instreamia’s Video Editor.
  • Instructional Videos – These are videos we make available on our YouTube Channel (under CC). Any teacher can contribute by creating their own YouTube channel and embedding their videos on the Instreamia Lesson Creator.
  • Lessons – These are either user-created (under CC), or Instreamia-created (under CC). Teachers can write text, embed Instructional Videos, and create exercises based on the Native-Content library.
  • Grammar Explanations –  These are lessons with special indexing, so that teachers and graders can direct their students to them. For example, typing @gustar anywhere in a lesson or comment would create a link to the Gustar grammar explanation.
  • Dictionary Entries – Every word has audio pronunciation (Forvo, not CC), definitions (Princeton’s WordNet, free license), and multilingual relations, or translations (Instreamia, CC). When a user notices a word with an inaccurate or missing translation, he/she can edit it, so our users are making our translations better all the time.

As a community we can make and maintain content that frees us from using archaic textbooks. (See “Got Textbooks? From This Century?”) Together as a group of educators, we can provide a better learning experience without having to license content. This will make teaching languages more scalable and affordable, and it will allow for rapidly-evolving curricula.

OU: Do you have any questions for our readers?

SR: We have so much to say and to discuss, and we’d love to hear comments from you!

  • How would your classroom change if a computer were able to assign and grade homework based on each individual student’s needs?
  • What methods have you found to make students fall in love with the subject matter

Scott RappScott Rapp is professor of SpanishMOOC, an open initiative to teach Spanish to large groups of people online. He is also the co-founder of the adaptive language learning platform Instreamia, which enables blended teaching by dynamically creating interactive lessons based on native content.

Best of MERLOT: Award-Winning World Language Resources

Best of MERLOT: Award-Winning World Language Resources

In my last post, I blogged about the de rigueur French sites I share with my community college students through the Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching (MERLOT). In addition to these, I must mention that there are almost 2,500 World Languages materials in MERLOT, not just in French, but in Arabic, Chinese, ESL, German, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Portuguese, Spanish and many other languages. There are simulations, animations, blogs, word clouds, virtual art galleries and recording studios, tutorials, videos, webquests and worksheets. The cost is just a bit of your time.

One of the most effective ways to find the best of MERLOT is by exploring the recipients of our World Languages Editor’s Choice and MERLOT Classics Awards. The Classic Award winners are chosen among outstanding online resources designed to enhance teaching and learning. The Editor’s Choice Award is an honor bestowed on one excellent learning material among all the Classics Award winners. An easy way to peruse all the award-winning resources is to visit the About MERLOT Awards/Exemplary Materials page,  

Top 3 Editor’s Choice Recipients
  1. LangMedia consists of a collection of target language videos done by international students from the Five Colleges of Massachusetts in their home countries. Videos in languages from Arabic to Wolof are included with transcripts, images and realia. See videos of French as it is spoken in a variety of Francophone nations, Spanish in the Spanish-speaking world, etc. There is also a substantial Bangla/Bengali collection, Czech, Croatian and on through the alphabet of languages. In addition to the language videos, there are also CultureTalk series  that are coded for elementary, middle school and high school classes. These resources can enhance language courses anywhere or be used by prospective travelers to the regions.
  2. Ojalá que llueva café  is a timeless favorite of Spanish teachers and learners everywhere for its embedding of culture, grammar and structure. Completely in the target language, it not only contains a glossed reading of the popular song by Juan Luis Guerra, it features a beautiful photo gallery of the Dominican Republic and many exercises to teach the subjunctive in an engaging way. Author Barbara K. Nelson, went on to create many modules using a similar format in her five-star Spanish.language&culture site.
  3. Lingu@net Worldwide  (formerly Lingu@netEuropa) catalogues some 3,500 learning materials all geared toward learning languages. Linguanet Worldwide allows users to discern their learning styles, to find conversation partners and to locate resources to enhance their knowledge of the target language and culture. The resources it points to reach a wide and diverse potential audience: casual learners of languages in a variety of age groups, students of languages for professional or academic reasons and others.

I hope this tour of the best of MERLOT inspires Open Up readers to submit their own work to MERLOT World Languages and to comment upon what they find in our collections. For instance, what features do you want to see that are not already in MERLOT now?

LauraLaura Franklin teaches French online at the Extended Learning Institute, Northern Virginia Community College. She is one of the original Co-Editors of MERLOT World Languages. For information on becoming a MERLOT World Languages Peer Reviewer, contact Laura at lfranklin@nvcc.edu.

To find more OER for languages, see Open Up on Open Education Week.

Open Up on Open Education Week

Open Up on Open Education Week

Are you new to the concept of open education? Do you need a crash course on the lingo, the collective mission, and what’s available out there for educators and learners? You’re in luck.

March 11-15 is Open Education Week. A week-long online festival where “more than 100 universities, colleges, schools and organizations from all over the world come together to showcase what they’re doing to make education more open, free, and available to everyone.” The goal of Open Education Week is to raise awareness about free and open educational opportunities.

Check out COERLL‘s contributions to the Resources section:

 

BOLDD: At the Speed of Language

BOLDD: At the Speed of Language

It’s the current speed and ubiquity of growth of online language learning at the beginning levels that has brought together an open community of designers, teachers, teacher trainers, and scholars, calling ourselves the BOLDD (Basic Online Language Design & Delivery) Collaboratory. We experiment and interact, sometimes face-to-face, but more often using the very social media and electronic tools of our emergent, open access economy.

On the top page of the BOLDD wiki you can see the who, what, where, for whom, how, and why of this collaboratory. Whoever has the link can view our work and any member can accord full editorial access and status to newcomers. We welcome lurking, but ask that visitors contribute to and share with the collective.

Some of us have designed whole programs for the institutions we teach at, for instance, I’ve created a four-course suite for beginning-intermediate French for VCU. Some have created a course or two, some are freelance, some focus on teacher preparation, some are in the planning stages.

How one collaborates and what one shares depend upon the individual. What individuals produce runs the gamut, from entirely open access to grant funded to institutional to proprietary materials and courses. Whatever BOLDD produces collaboratively, however, is OER and open to anyone.

Much of our collaboration thus far has been to identity and organize ourselves and to start sharing our knowledge and resources at regional and national conferences. In 2012 we presented at CALICO , FLAVA , ACTFL , and the University of Pennsylvania Symposium 2012. The Google Presentations we co-created for each venue are attached to the wiki.

Kathryn_workshopThis year, subgroups of our collective will hold workshops at NECTFL, SCOLT, CALICO, FLAVA and, hopefully, at ACTFL again. Subgroups are, likewise, beginning to work on a position paper for ACTFL on the adaptations of the ACTFL Standards for the entirely online environment that will underscore their foundational place, all the while accounting for the specificities (and range thereof) of the environment for learners, teachers, content and media.

The field is pretty much the Wild, Wild West — with the good, the bad, and the ugly and a bit of the fast and the furious thrown in. We look to thinkers like social media theorist Clay Shirky to contemplate the workings of collaborative social media for our learners as well as for ourselves and our institutions. (See Use Your Cognitive Surplus to Improve Foreign Language Education by Carl Blyth.)

The products, practices and perspectives for individual deliverables as well as what we create for BOLDD are part of a radical new economy that we don’t entirely have a handle on! The ‘value’ attributed to online learning circulates and has different, ofttimes conflicting, meaning for administrators, designers, teachers, learners and other stakeholders (communities, families, governments). Several of us, in fact, are checking out a Spanish MOOC, thanks to the suggestion of Marlene Johnshoy of CARLA. Marlene invited all BOLDD educators considering aspects of this learning platform to participate in the Spanish MOOC. She obtained permission from the instructor, Scott Rapp, asking if we “teacher-lurkers” could participate.  Then she set up a discussion board for us to chat about our experiences  “lurked.”

Questions we are asking ourselves and you:

  • What percentage of basic (first and second year) language classes do you see being delivered entirely online in 5 years? 10 years?  
  • Do you think it will affect the overall percentage of  foreign language students at the post secondary level (see: MLA 2009 survey that shows in 1965 16.5% of college students took a foreign language v. only 8.6% in 2009)? 

Please join the conversation and the ride!

KathrynKathryn Murphy-Judy, Ph.D. (Associate Professor, School of World Studies, Virginia Commonwealth University), teaches French and global media literacies and works in technology enhanced language learning (TELL). She has designed and delivered online French for first and second year and founded the BOLDD Collaboratory to share via social media good design and teaching practices in online language courses.

To read more about innovative collaboration in language education, check out ACTFL Innovates: Think Outside the Book by Tom Welch.

ACTFL Innovates: Think Outside the Book

ACTFL Innovates: Think Outside the Book

What language educator has not had the uneasy feeling that despite following requisite lesson plans, district curriculum guides, or state frameworks, there must be a better way to facilitate world language learning?

What Is ACTFL Innovates?

Last summer, a small cadre of teachers and a few other critical friends, fueled by that very unease coupled with the desire for openness in collaboration and innovation, led to the beginning of a very informal ACTFL initiative known as ACTFL Innovates. The group has expanded to include a growing number of interested language teachers. Envisioned as an informal, collaborative group of professionals who would commit to sharing resources, ideas, failures, and success, the group has followed a path on a cycle that is common to many startups: namely, initial excitement and enthusiasm, early experimentation, outside pressures and distractions, and waning engagement by participants.

However, it’s essential to view this as part of a cycle, not a one-way trip. As language professionals from all levels, we need a wide variety of environments where we can feel free to question, share resources, engage, experiment, encourage, warn, analyze, and dream. ACTFL Innovates is not unique in that. Many of our colleagues have opened up other avenues for this as well, such as #langchat on Thursday evenings, and various other twitter streams.

Why Another Initiative?

The short answer is that ACTFL Innovates is an opportunity for those who feel like the current structure of “clearly articulated curricula” and the accompanying grades we assign students are false proxies for language learning.

It’s for those of us who ask:

  • Can students learn languages by reading foreign language transcripts of TED Talks about a subject they are interested in?
  • Can OER language resources be accessed and effectively used by students according to interest with little regard for appropriate “level”?
  • Would a math teacher be willing to accept evidence of learning from a student who mastered a concept by using non-English resources? (See How Khan Academy Is Going Global.)

Who knows? Would you, as a world languages teacher, be willing to accept a student-constructed evidence portfolio centered on skate-boarding, or rocket launching , or kite-flying in place of that Level I, Unit 5 lesson on “shopping in a foreign market”?

For those searching for a safe place to discuss innovative ideas like these, ACTFL Innovates may be one step in an important journey. I look forward to hearing from you.

T WelchTom Welch is an independent consultant and has witnessed, participated in, and advocated for the explosion of opportunities for learning unbound by traditional limits of time or place. He is a founding member of ACTFL Innovates. He has been a high school French teacher and principal, and once designed an online Mandarin course for high schools in Kentucky.

 

To read more about collaborating with other language educators, read Making Collaboration Easier by Carl Blyth.

Use Your Cognitive Surplus to Improve Foreign Language Education

Use Your Cognitive Surplus to Improve Foreign Language Education

When I read the book Cognitive Surplus by Clay Shirky, a writer and  media studies professor at NYU, I thought of the foreign language educator. Check out Shirky’s TEDTalk on the subject:

Clay Shirky’s TEDTalk: How Cognitive Surplus Will Change the World

Shirky argues that modern life has resulted in unprecedented amounts of leisure time. And today, thanks to the Internet, people are choosing to use their free time to collaborate in new and exciting ways. Here’s an excerpt from the book cover:

For the first time, people are embracing new media that allow them to pool their efforts at vanishingly low cost. The results of this aggregated effort range from mind-expanding reference tools like Wikipedia to life-saving Web sites like Ushahidi.com, which allows Kenyans to report acts of violence in real time. Cognitive Surplus explores what’s possible  when people unite to use their intellect, energy, and time for the greater good.

His claim is that the Internet is turning consumers into producers. But is this true of language teachers?

Despite Shirky’s enthusiasm, teachers still view themselves as consumers of pedagogical products. And yet, teachers produce pedagogical content all the time: lesson plans, quizzes, worksheets, activities and so on. The problem is that teachers denigrate their materials as amateurish or unprofessional. Because of this pervasive attitude, they rarely share their local materials with other teachers.

Shirky argues that all forms of digital production–from LOLcats to Wikipedia–have an important role to play in Internet culture. So, here is the point: every educational product, no matter how humble, is the result of a creative impulse that has the potential to benefit others.

To participate in the Open Education Movement, you don’t need to be a professional textbook author. But you do need to realize that sharing your materials is a powerful act of intellectual generosity.

Your thoughts?

Carl BlythCarl Blyth is Director of COERLL and Associate Professor of French, UT Austin.  His research includes CMC,  cross-cultural and intercultural pragmatics, interactional sociolinguistics, and pedagogical grammar.  He is project director of eComma, an open-source annotation application to facilitate more “social” forms of reading.

To read more about sharing your educational creations, read Set Them Free: How to Share Your Materials by Georges Detiveaux. 

Also, March 11-15 is Open Education Week — raising awareness of the open education movement and its impact on teaching and learning worldwide. We’ll be participating and sharing the links with you.

Set Them Free: How to Share Your Materials

Set Them Free: How to Share Your Materials

Here’s something that happened a couple semesters ago. At the beginning of class one day, I noticed a pile of handouts on the teacher’s desk left by one of my colleagues. I glanced at the handouts as my students were filing into the room. I realized I knew them. Not my students–the handouts.

Francais interactifThey were exercises, quizzes, PowerPoints, and tests I had created to supplement the open French textbook I use (COERLL’s Français interactif). You see, I still can’t help but feel these are somehow my children. I used to have such a helicopter-mom approach to these babies. I would nurse my creations into something to be proud of, protect them, hold them close to me, and never let them out of my sight.

Today, all of our sections of French use this text. I have come to the decision to share just about everything I make for my own class with my colleagues. Here’s how it happened for me.

1. Share on Your Terms

I started by sending an email to my colleagues explaining the materials I had created, indicating whether students could keep a copy of the materials (no, in the case of tests), and pointing out any peculiarities to edit and customize for their own purposes. For instance, taking my name off the materials or substituting their own classroom stories in place of mine.

I was worried my colleagues would think I was being too strict with my “rules.” Then I envisioned my poor colleagues trying to use my materials just as they are, without editing them to suit their particular classes. Inevitably, they would run into some issue with the materials in the middle of class that would leave everyone dumbfounded. Some inside joke only my students and I would understand. Unconventional grammatical structures, terms, or expressions I had added in response to my students’ questions. These were pitfalls that I was pointing out, and that was fine.

2. Let Go

I suppose it’s in our nature to worry about our creations. I do care about these materials I have created and decided to share. Yes, my heartstrings are tugged when I see an old quiz of mine abandoned on the teacher’s desk. But I have to accept that these materials will take on a life of their own once out of my hands and that I’m contributing to something larger than just my own classroom.

3. Realize the Mutual Benefit of Openness

Fortunately, I happen to teach at a place where other people share their materials with me. I can decide if I like them, if they apply to my class and learners, and how I might adapt them. Through all of this, I get the chance to evaluate and revise my own teaching.

I guess that makes up for the fact that my own materials are no longer on lock-down here in the digital nest of my hard drive. We open educators can take comfort in knowing that our “children” will continue to function in some context once out of our hands. That they will get changed, misunderstood, edited, abandoned, praised, or rejected is just part of the process. It’s how they grow up.

Do you have these concerns about sharing your personally created materials? How much do you share with colleagues or teaching assistants? What instructions, if any, do you give when you share? Are there rules about what they can do with what you share? When your colleagues share with you, how do you decide what to do with those materials? I’d like to hear how you share.

georgesGeorges Detiveaux is Manager of Instructional Technology & Adjunct Support in the Teaching & Learning Center and French instructor in the Department of World Languages at Lone Star College-CyFair in Cypress, TX. He is also president of the South Central Association for Language Learning Technology (SOCALLT).

To read more about sharing and remixing OER for your own use, see 10 French Resources for Students Anywhere by Laura Franklin.

A Public School District Attempts to Own Teachers’ And Students’ Work

A Public School District Attempts to Own Teachers’ And Students’ Work

Any grassroots movement will soon run into opposition. And Open Education is no different. Still, I was shocked when I read about a new proposal from the Prince George’s County (Maryland) Board of Education to copyright the intellectual property of its teachers and students.

Open Education Faces Opposition

As reported by the Washington Post on Feb. 2, 2013,  an Apple presentation about empowering teachers to create their own materials with iPad technology threatened the Maryland-area School Board’s sense of curricular control and triggered the draconian proposal:

Board Chair Verjeana M. Jacobs (District 5) said she and Vice Chair Carolyn M. Boston (District 6) attended an Apple presentation and learned how teachers can use apps to create new curricula. The proposal was designed to make it clear who owns teacher-developed curricula created while using apps on iPads that are school property, Jacobs said.

The Washington Post article noted that it is not unusual for a company or a college to hold some of the rights to an employee’s work. But this proposal is different.

…the Prince George’s policy goes a step further by saying that work created for the school by employees during their own time and using their own materials is the school system’s property.

Try Creative Commons

Not surprisingly, the legal status of the proposal has been challenged. Somebody needs to tell the Prince George’s County School Board about Creative Commons open licenses, a new form of copyright that permits the sharing of content while protecting the rights of all stakeholders: the school system, the teachers and the students.

Whatever the outcome, the proposal is clearly an affront to the educational value of openness. And that’s a shame, because the open sharing of ideas is pretty much the essence of education.

As the OER movement continues to grow, there will be more efforts to oppose openness. I’m interested to hear your thoughts on this development. 

Carl BlythCarl Blyth is Director of COERLL and Associate Professor of French, UT Austin.  His research includes CMC,  cross-cultural and intercultural pragmatics, interactional sociolinguistics, and pedagogical grammar.  He is project director of eComma, an open-source annotation application to facilitate more “social” forms of reading.

To read more about the Open Education approach, check out Making Collaboration Easier also by Carl Blyth.